Exploring Fish Farming: Types, Significance, and Best Practices

Exploring Fish Farming: Types, Significance, and Best Practices

Fishing is the process of raising, raising and transporting fish for domestic and commercial purposes. Fish is at the top of the list when it comes to healthy and nutritious food because it is a source of protein and other minerals.

 Different types of fish farming can be distinguished depending on the investment, the density of fish in a particular area and the destination of the product. The degree of assertiveness, determined by the behavior of feeding, is the main characteristic. 

Fish production is divided into three parts according to the level of power:

  • Artisanal (small scale)

This method is often used in rural areas and provides the best method for supplying inputs and trading back. It is a small sector that is usually organized in family units and requires hard work. These two areas are freshwater fishing in ponds, and pond fishing, the latter of which is seasonal and depends on the use of rainwater.

  •  Aquaculture (agriculture)

Aquaculture refers to the farming of fish for food in a controlled environment. This process includes choosing the right pond site, building the ponds properly, stocking them the right way, providing the right food, managing the pond water and soil, and bringing in mature fish. This company includes various actors and professionals such as lake engineers, fish health experts, nutritionists and geneticists.

 Aquaculture is not intended to replace traditional fishing methods but to supplement animal protein. FAO defines aquaculture as the cultivation of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. The word "culture" refers to the intervention of reproductive systems to improve production, such as reproduction, feeding and protection from predators. It also means that everyone or owns the law of the herdsmen.

  • Industrial fishing:

Industrial fishing:

The fishing sector focuses on the large production sector and economic objectives. Fishing is a means of production and a tool of development. Although low-tech methods used to be considered adequate for fishing, advanced forms of intensive fishing have proven to be more effective.
Intensive methods are easy to transfer thanks to well-defined objects in controlled environments, such as cages and ponds or rivers. Although intensive processes have high production costs, they also produce high productivity.
Fish farming initially faced obstacles such as the risk of disease and high financial costs, which could take years to produce. This requires the training of professionals, the creation of an administrative and marketing agency, and arrangements for security and transportation.
Industrial uses of fish include the production of fish fillets, mined fish products, salted foods, protein concentrates, and oil products 

The significance of fish:


 Source of Protein: 

Fish is the cheapest compared to other proteins such as poultry, meat, beef, pork, and beef.


 It creates jobs for fishermen, workers in research institutions, universities, education centers, and cold store employees.

    Income generation:

 Provides income for state and local governments and serves as a source of foreign exchange earnings through exportation.

    International cooperation:

 Allows African countries to participate in international organizations like FAO, UNDP, and IFAD, which provide funds for rural development in the fisheries sector.

    Rural development: 

Assists in improving the livelihoods of fishermen and related stakeholders through direct government interventions.

    Food security:

 Contributes to food availability, employment, and income, and provides highly nutritious animal protein and important micronutrients.

Types of cultural fish production practices:

a) Traditional pisciculture: 

This practice can be implemented in all types of water bodies with low production, relying on naturally available food.

b) Intensive culture:

 Fish farming involves cultivating various species based on market demand, supply, and profitability. Success depends on adequate fish feed, organic fertilizer, and a perennial water source. The water source must be carefully chosen and not used for other purposes.

c) Composite culture/polyculture:

 This farming system raises six species, including major carp and exotic carp species. Different levels of feeder fish enhance production, allowing full utilization of feed. It produces fry, fingerlings, and table-size fish.

  •  Advantages of composite culture include full water body utilization, increased income for the farmer, and optimum production. However, it requires more income to operate, multiple harvestings, more time, labor, and a large water body.

d) Integrated culture: 

This practice involves keeping fish along with other farm businesses such as rice growing, vegetable growing, cattle keeping, and poultry rearing. It can be done using locally available resources. Advantages of integrated culture include the mixing of multiple farming types in one area, efficient land, and water utilization, and an additional source of income. Disadvantages include the need for more labor, capital, and the tiring nature of the practice.

e) Mono-species culture:

 In this type, a single species, such as catfish or a specific exotic species, is cultured.

  • Advantages include lower energy requirements, ease of harvest, and time-saving.

  • Disadvantages include competition for food among the species on the site, underutilization of water levels, and lower production compared to polyculture.


Understanding the different types of fish farming practices is crucial for successful fish production. Whether it's small-scale artisanal farming, controlled environment aquaculture, or industrial fish farming, each approach has its own benefits and challenges.

Fish farming plays a significant role in providing protein, employment, income generation, and food security. By adopting appropriate fish farming techniques and considering factors such as feeding, pond management, and market demand, farmers can contribute to the sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry.




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