TYPES OF CROPS IN AGRICULTURE: WHY AND HOW TO CLASSIFY


Types of Crops in Agriculture: Why and How to Classify

Types of Crops in Agriculture: Why and How to Classify


Plant diversity is useful in agriculture. First, there is a list of different types of crops based on their commercial purpose. Crops can also be grouped based on their life cycle, making it easier for farmers to plan planting and harvesting operations. A new group of genetically modified genes has recently taken an important place among agricultural crops, helping to make food more accessible and having a negative impact on the environment.  

 Farmers should consider the characteristics of different types of crops when choosing which ones to plant and planning their farming operations. Modern technology will be especially useful for the planning and organization of large-scale enterprises. 

Types of Crop according to their uses

 Rather than being an accurate scientific classification of plants, this botanical classification describes their uses and economic value.

 Based on its use, there are 6 types of crops: food,forage, fiber,b oil, ornamental and industrial.

Food Crop 

Historically, food plants were the first to be domesticated. They are grown for human consumption. Food plants, especially corn, are strategically important. At the same time, farmers should keep in mind that although industrial farming has many benefits, it can also cause negative effects on the environment, such as greenhouse gases (GHG).

The following are the types of food crop

Cereals:

 wheat, rice, barley, millet, oat, rye, sorghum and others. Cereals are a source of starch, protein, dietary fiber and nutrients and are an important part of the daily diet. In particular, corn, rice and wheat provide the majority of calories and protein consumed in developing countries. 

There is a significant effect of plant species on nitrogen oxide emissions. In more than 1.2 billion tons
produced, corn is the most important grain, as it is the main source of GHG emissions from agriculture. Mainly, agricultural activities related to corn cultivation cause N2O emissions in the following ways: excessive use of food and synthetic fertilizers; planting nitrogen-fixing plants; inadequate drainage, increased soil saturation; planting, releasing nitrogen residues; excessive irrigation.


Seed include many types of crops, such as grains, seeds, legumes and some spices. Seeds are high in fiber, fats, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.

 
types of cereal crops
 
Fruits: apples and pears, citrus, stone fruits, tropical and exotic fruits, berries, and other types. Fruits contain a lot of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, such as flavonoids, which promote health.
 
Vegetables are high in water and low in calories. They are also rich in dietary fiber, antioxidants, minerals and vitamins (especially A and C). There are many types of commercial vegetable


 root vegetables: beets, carrots, sweet potatoes, turnips;
 tubers: potatoes, with;
 vegetables: asparagus, kohlrabi, celery;
 greens: lettuce, spinach, silver beets;
 allium or bulb vegetables: garlic, leeks, onions, shallots;
 root vegetables or flowers: artichokes, cabbage, cauliflower;
 Vegetables from the cucumber family: pumpkin, cucumber, zucchini.

Spices are divided into three categories: spices themselves (pepper, ginger), pepper seeds and herbs. Spices are used to add flavor and aroma to food. They contain essential oils and alkaloids that promote appetite and digestion.

Forage Crops

Forage plants, or animal feed, contain the nutrients animals need for their development. They are grown for animal consumption and are essential for pasture management. Some of the most crucial types of forage crops are sorghum, alfalfa, barley, oats, millet, soybeans, wheat and corn.

 Forage is divided into two types based on how it is processed:
 
Hay is forages that has been cut, dried in the field and stored;


 Silage is produced by harvesting and storing them in conditions that allow them to split (ferment) into acids. Types of silage crops include grasses and annual grasses.

As global demand for meat has increased, food production has exploded. Increased animal feed production has transformed agricultural land, leading to extensive deforestation to create pastures for livestock. core
Grass planted fiber
 
The plant is growing a strap for the island, polyg, filled, and the book is known as a type of crop. The famous Franc-famous is lonely, hemp, Jute, Kenaf, and Flax. Some of them have good prospects as farm biomass can be converted into ethanol.
Oil crops
 
Thanks to technological advances in agriculture over the past century, trees can be processed and broken down into their primary components, including oil. Today, oil crops are the second largest contributor to the agricultural economy (after corn) and the third largest user of agricultural land.
 
Important plants of this type are soybeans, sunflower seeds, rapeseed, canola and peanuts. They are high in oils, dietary fibers, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Apart from producing oil for human consumption, this type of plants is used in various industries, including soaps, paints, machinery lubricants, fuel, and many more.

 Oil companies also provide raw materials for biodiesel production. Soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, camelina, and palm are the main sources of biodiesel. Due to the high yield of palm trees, the palm plantation industry is constantly expanding.
 
Ornamental plants
 

These plants are grown for decoration in parks, gardens and landscaping that affect the decorative style. Ivy, oleander, holly, tulips and azaleas are ornamental plants.

Industrial crops

 
Manufacturing companies are reported for profit and company goals. They are also called cash crops or crops that include cotton, jute, sugar cane, sugar beet, coffee, tea, tobacco, coconut and soybeans.

tobacco plantation

As you have noticed, the same tree can be different in classification by use. For example, wheat and corn can be a type of food or animal feed. Sugarcane provides both edible sugar and alcohol for bioethanol production. Of course, there are others. Let's say that many of these decorative flowers are as poisonous as they are beautiful.

 Types of crops by life cycle

Every crop goes through a series of plant growth stages, from germination to seed production. The total duration of all these stages, namely the life cycle, varies between plants. So, according to their life cycle, what kind of plants are these? There are 3 types: annual, biennial and perennial, which we will examine in detail. 

 Annual Plant:

Annual or seasonal plants have  a one year life cycle. Because only does the dormant fruit come from one generation to generation, fruit will be referred to each year. Examples of annual plants are tomatoes, radishes, eggplant, peas, beans, squash, lettuce, mustard, sunflower and corn.

A biennial plant

Biennials are flowering plants that have a life cycle of two years (two growing seasons). In the first year, the plant grows vegetative parts such as leaves, stems and roots. Then the company enters the vacation and will fill in the ground during winter. The length of you will, the development of flowers and seeds and fruits of the yield occurs during the second time of taste, when the tree died. Biennial crops include carrots, beets, turnips, onions, cabbage, parsley and cilantro.

Perennial plant:
 
Perennials are plants that can live more than two growing seasons. This type of patterns of the roots of roots are at first from time to time. Perennials include plants and plants like pears, apple, almonds, pants, fruits, nuts and hazelnuts. Some flowering plants and ground covers are also included in the perennial category.

Genetically modified organisms
 

At first, breeders choose the best species to give plants the desired characteristics, such as high production or resistance to certain types of diseases. Thanks to genetic engineering, we can achieve such characteristics quickly and extensively. As a result, different types of crops appear: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - plants that have been genetically modified.

 Farmers can buy genetically modified seeds in order to grow plants that are resistant to different types of stress: diseases, extreme temperatures, chemicals and others. In this way, farmers can significantly reduce costs and increase production. The variety of applications for genetically modified organisms is amazing:
 

  • nutritional enhancement: increased vitamin content and better fatty acid profile;
  • stress tolerance: resistance to extreme heat, drought or soil salinization;
  • disease resistance: increased resistance to different types of plants, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi;
  •  biofuels: improved ethanol conversion by modification of plant cell walls;
  •  phytoremediation: the ability of plants to remove pollutants from the soil.

 
Despite the many benefits of GMOs, the spread of genetic modification can reduce biodiversity. In addition to this, as a GM tree resistant, the use of chemicals increased. Therefore, even though other farms are expensive, it has many advantages in the process of support. 


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