What are the different water treatment methods?

 What are the different water treatment methods?

Read on to learn about different water treatment methods. This is a comprehensive guide to the water management system.

The importance of water for all living things and for the environment is known to everyone. The surface of the earth consists of 71% water. But what percentage of this amount will be drunk? Only 1% Pure water is essential for drinking and irrigation. Water scarcity is a major problem in many countries around the world. In a world that is struggling with non-biodegradable plastic waste, industrial waste and other pollutants, it is important to have more water plants that work. To manage water, waste water management helps a lot as it recycles water and saves consumption of good water for secondary purposes.

Water contamination

Humans often contaminate water bodies such as rivers, lakes, oceans and groundwater. There are four main causes of water pollution: 

Industrial waste: 

heavy metals, toxic chemicals, microplastics, sand, plastic, ceramics and petroleum products from various industries (such as cement, pharmaceuticals, etc.) 'into our water. This waste is also landfilled, which can affect groundwater.


 Sewage from kitchen and other household wastes is also very important. The content of human and animal waste is very harmful to our health.

  Agricultural waste:

 Inorganic fertilizers, chemical pesticides and insecticides contain toxic substances that are dangerous, if ingested, to all life forms.

 Urban runoff:

Water runoff from the land surface because of rain  contains silt, metals, clay, and all other waste. This water also flows into the water bodies, thereby polluting them.

 Water pollution is harmful not only to humans but also to all forms of life. The aquatic environment is affected by oxygen depletion and eutrophication, which disrupts the system.

 Effects of pollution on drinking water

Due to water pollution, drinking water in different places exhibits these characteristics in varying intensities.

  • bad taste and smell, 
  •  Color change
  • changes in turbidity
  • changes in salinity
  • pH changes

Water treatment plants treat the water bodies to make it safe for drinking by removing these problems and solving the causes of this problem. Some governments, such as the Maharashtra cabinet, approved a series of sewage treatment plans to recycle sewage. 

Types of water impurities

There are different types of impurities in water depending on their size. These include: 

  • suspended impurities (more than 10⁻³ mm)
  • Colloidal impurities (between 10⁻³ mm and 10⁻⁶ mm)
  • dissolved impurities (less than 10⁻⁶ mm)

Water Treatment  techniques: Objectives

The main purpose of water treatment is: 

  •  Water treatment aims to reduce the level of impurities in water to a level where it is safe for human consumption and poses no health risk. 
  • Another goal of water treatment is to reduce the presence of negative factors such as color, odor, turbidity and hardness in water.
  • The main purpose of the water treatment system is to make the water safe and suitable for other domestic uses.
  •  Water treatment also aims to eliminate the types of water damage that can damage pipes and other equipment.

Finally, water treatment makes water safe for various industrial applications such as steam generation and drying by ensuring that it meets certain standards.

Benefits of water treatment

  • Water treatment gives us clean and safe water to drink.
  • Restore the quality of water deprived of its purity and nutrition
  • Managing our water resources can reduce pollution
  • Contaminated water is the source of many diseases. Using recycled water can stop these things.
  •   It is better to treat available water than to buy mineral water.

Water Treatment plant process

You can treat sewage water using a sewage treatment plant that has three stages: primary water treatment or primary stage, secondary water treatment and tertiary water treatment.

 How is water treatment done?

Drinking water purification has been around for centuries. Methods such as boiling, filtering, leaching and sun treatment are used. However, these traditional methods are not enough. Therefore, a lot of research has been done to find effective water treatment processes to get the purest kind of drinking water. These are the basic steps of water treatment. 

What is the main water treatment?
Sedimentation refers to the separation of solids or sediments from water. The flock, now heavier, uses gravity to rest on the bottom of the plate.


Now, the clear water passes through the pores of different sizes which removes the other solids present. Sand, gravel, dust and even germs are separated in this step. The filter is backwashed periodically. Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration are also used to treat water.

Also, carbons can be activated. These adsorbents can remove unwanted colors, odors and tastes from recycled water.

What is secondary wastewater treatment? 

Removal of biodegradable organic matter (BOD) and suspended solids is a secondary treatment of wastewater.

What is tertiary wastewater treatment? 

Tertiary water treatment is a combination of physical and chemical processes including desinfection and filtration. In addition, removal of nutrients, elimination of nitrogen and phosphorus, etc. is also used in tertiary wastewater treatment.


A coagulant is a chemical added to water to remove the negative charge of dissolved substances. For example, some coagulants are alum and iron. Unfortunately, the water is easily mixed when the coagulant is added. As a result, the objects are heavy and come out of the water.


The water is allowed to enter the flocculation water to facilitate the coagulation process. Here, the size of the flocs is enhanced for easy settling. In addition, a flocculant can be added to the water to facilitate this process. In the flocculation tank, slow paddle mixers cause the collision of different particles.


One or more antibiotics can be added to the water to continue the work of the treatment plant. For example, chlorine or chlorine dioxide can be used to kill bacteria or viruses that are still present in the water. Some plants also use UV light to evaporate water. 

Other water treatments  techniques

Besides the main method mentioned above, there are other ways to improve water quality.

  • Ultrafiltration:

 Water passes through pores whose size varies from 0.01 to 0.1 microns. It is very effective in fighting bacteria and viruses in water.

  • Microfiltration: 

This is the stage before ultrafiltration. The gap is between 0.1 and 1 micron.

  • Ozonation:

 Organic compounds and microorganisms can be eliminated by treating water with ozone.

  • Flotation: 

The addition of bubbles is used to separate solids from liquids.

  • Biological treatment: 

Microorganisms are used to break down pollutants. Autotrophs can fix carbon and water and produce fats, proteins or carbohydrates. Heterotrophs can help by providing food and nutrients that are not available in water.

  • Desalination: 

Desalination processes such as digestion and reverse osmosis are often used, especially in coastal areas. 

  • Ion exchange:

 The resin contains strong chloride and sodium ions that ensure that contaminant ions remain attached to it. 


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