What are plantation crops? characteristics and examples

 What are plantation crops? characteristics and examples

What are plantation crops?

Plantation crops refer to a class of agricultural products that are grown on a large scale in large, competitive areas, usually in tropical and subtropical areas. The main characteristic of these crops is that they are high value crops, which are grown commercially for the purpose of sale rather than personal consumption. These usually include, but are not limited to, tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber, sugar cane, bananas, pineapples and certain types of nuts.

Plantation farming is characterized by a large monoculture, labor intensive, and capital investment. These crops usually have a long growing season and require a lot of work for their maintenance, harvesting and subsequent processing. Crops play an important role in the economy, contributing significantly to the gross domestic product (GDP) and export earnings of many countries, especially in developing countries.

 In addition, planting is an important course, often a major source of employment and their family, thus playing large development of economic relationships. In addition, planting has also been very effective in the world's entry and services. However, the cultivation and management of these crops must be sustainable in the environment, considering what they can do to the environment.

What are plantations?

 A plantation is a large field or land, usually in a tropical or tropical climate, where a single commercial crop is grown. The term "plantation" is often associated with the production of crops such as coffee, rubber, tea, cocoa, bananas, sugar, and various types of palm trees. These farms are usually owned and managed by a single entity, which can be an individual, a company, or a government. The workers who live in the house usually work on the farm. 

What is plantation Agriculture?

Plantation agriculture refers to a form of commercial farming where crops are grown on a large scale. It is commonly practiced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The crops that are cultivated are mostly cash crops, which means that they are sold in the global market at a higher price. The main characteristics of agriculture include large areas of land or crops, a high level of specialization in one or two crops that demand a large market, extensive use of technology, and workers work lives in the field. Some of the crops commonly grown include sugarcane, coffee, cocoa, bananas and pineapples. The purpose of farming is to produce crops that can be sold, often for export to other countries.

Main characteristics of plantation crops

Plantation crops are primarily known for their commercial production and different climatic requirements

Here are the main characteristics of plants that make them different from other plants:

 1. Monoculture - Plantation crops are often grown as a monoculture, meaning that the same crop is grown in large numbers across an area. This can make maintenance easier and increase yields, but also makes plants more susceptible to disease and pests.

2. High value crops
- Cash crops are generally high value crops. They are grown commercially for sale and not for local consumption. 

3. Specific climatic requirements - plantation crop often require different climatic conditions. Most of them are grown in tropical or subtropical areas, because these crops usually require hot and humid weather.

4. Labour intensive
- plantation crops are labor intensive. They often require a lot of manual labor to plant, prepare and harvest crops. The importance of this work provides employment opportunities for many people, especially in developing regions.

5. Capital intensive - growing crops requires a lot of money. This is due to the need for large land, high quality seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and, in many cases, advanced machinery for planting and harvesting.

 6. Long gestation period - Most crops have a long gestation period. For example, rubber trees, once planted, can take up to seven years to mature and be ready for latex mining.

7. Processing Requirements - Many plantation crops must be processed before they can be used or eaten. For example, coffee beans must be roasted, roasted and ground before they can be used to produce coffee

8.Large scale production - As the word "plantation suggests, these crops are usually grown in large quantities. This large production is linked to the commercial use of these crops.

9. Export Oriented: Since crops are valuable crops, they are often grown for the international market. Therefore, they play an important role in the export earnings of many countries.

 10. Sensitive to market fluctuations: The price of crops in the international market can fluctuate greatly, affecting the income of farmers in countries that depend on these crops.

Major plantation crop-What are the example of plantation crops

All the commercial crops such as tea, coffee and rubber, which are sold in many markets are called plantation crops. These crops not only help in boosting our economy in terms of creating export opportunities, but also help in reducing unemployment, by providing more employment opportunities in agriculture.

 These are the major plantation crops:

• Tea

Tea is a major crop and one of the most popular beverages in the world. Native to China, tea is a perennial shrub that thrives in tropical and subtropical climates. It requires rain to be well distributed throughout the year and a deep, fertile acidic soil, rich in organic matter, for optimal growth. These leaves are harvested for aromatics, undergoing various processes such as drying, rolling and fermentation to produce different types of tea such as green and black . The countries that produce tea are China, India, Sri Lanka and Kenya, while the Indian varieties Assam and Darjeeling are famous all over the world.

  •   Coffee

Coffee is another important crop, and its beans are a staple in households and restaurants around the world. Coffee plants need a warm climate, regular rain and shaded sunlight. Coffee cherries, which contain beans, are collected, processed and dried. The beans are roasted to different degrees, depending on the desired flavor, from light to dark. Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa are the coffee producing regions, while Brazil and Colombia are the largest coffee producers.

  • Rubber

Rubber is an important plant used in various industries, including automobiles for the production of tires. The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is native to South America but is cultivated today in Southeast Asia. The plant grows best in a warm climate tropical climate with high humidity. The latex sap is extracted from the tree and converted into rubber, known for its softness and waterproof properties.

 • Cocoa

Cacao, the main ingredient in chocolate, is a tropical plant. The cocoa tree grows in a warm, rainy climate, where its cultivation is based in West Africa, especially the Ivory Coast and Ghana. The beans are harvested from the cocoa pod, ground, dried and made into cocoa powder or chocolate. The process of turning cocoa beans into chocolate is complex and involves several steps, including roasting, grinding and conching. 

  • Sugarcane

Sugarcane is a tall grass and the main source of sugar production. It prefers a warm, humid climate and needs plenty of water and fertile soil for optimum growth. Once the sugarcane is harvested, it is crushed to extract the juice, which is then processed into sugar. Sugarcane is also used to produce biofuels. Brazil, India and China are major sugarcane producers.  

  • bananas

Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and a staple crop in many tropical regions. They require rich, warm soil and do well in hot weather. Bananas are unique because they are grown all year round, providing farmers with a solid income. The fruit is known for its high nutritional value, providing an important source of potassium and vitamin C. India, China and the Philippines are banana producers.

  •  Pineapple

Pineapple is a tropical plant that prefers a warm and humid climate. It has a strong, sharp and sweet exterior, with delicious fruit inside. Pineapple plantations are commonly found in Thailand, the Philippines and Costa Rica. The fruit is eaten fresh, canned or made into juice. Pineapples are also a source of bromelain, an enzyme used in various nutritional supplements and treatments.

  • Palm oil

Oil palms are grown in subtropical regions and harvested for their fruits, which produce palm oil. The oil is widely used in food, cosmetics and biofuels. However, oil palm plantations are associated with deforestation and habitat destruction, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia, which are the main producers. This has led to a growing call for sustainable palm production practices.

  • cashew nuts

Cashew is another important crop, grown for its nuts which are eaten around the world. The cashew tree is hardy and can withstand high temperatures, although it prefers a very humid climate. The ideal temperature for growing the fruit is between 24 and 28 °C and requires a rainfall of 100 to 175 cm. The plant grows in different types of soil, but sandy and sandy soils are considered the best. Major cashew producing states in India are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Kerala. Cashew cake, which is often used in cooking, is the fruit of the fruit, while the cashew apple can be made into a sweet, astringent fruit juice or soaked in alcohol.

  • Coconut

Coconut is a versatile plant, and different parts of the plant are used for different purposes. Coconut grows in hot and humid climates, with temperatures ranging from 27 to 32 °C and annual rainfall between 200 and 250 cm. It prefers sandy and loamy soil, which drains well. The coastal regions of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are the leading coconut producing states in India due to their favorable climate and soil type. Coconut fruit is a source of food, oil and milk, while the husk, husk and fronds are used in crafts and construction. The coconut palm is often called the "tree of life" because of its many uses.

  • Cotton

Cotton is an important crop, cultivated mainly for its fiber, or lint, which is used in the textile industry. It thrives in tropical and subtropical regions, and the best growing conditions are temperatures between 21 and 30 °C and rainfall between 50 and 100 cm. The plant prefers black soil, well, which retains water and is rich in iron, lime and alkaline. Cotton growing is a major agricultural activity in most Indian states, with Gujarat, Maharashtra and Telangana being major producers. Crops are usually planted in the spring and harvested in the fall. It plays a vital role in the economy, providing employment to millions of people in agriculture and textiles.

  • Arecanut

Arecanut is a hard nut that is used to chew betel leaves. Its grass is used for construction and its leaves for massage. It is a tropical tree that grows at temperatures between 15 and 35 ° C and annual rainfall reaches 200 to 300 cm. India is the largest producer of arecanut in the world, with Kerala being the top producer, followed by Karnataka, Assam, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

  • Spices

Spices like pepper, cardamom, chilie, turmeric and ginger are some of the important spices produced in India. In recent years, the country's area and food production has increased significantly. For example, pepper is a tropical plant that requires temperatures between 10 and 30 °C, and the rain that distributes well is 200 to 300 cm. India is the second largest producer of pepper after Indonesia, while Kerala is the largest producer of pepper, followed by Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Why are plantation crops important?

Plantation crops have high commercial value. They play an important role in the world economy, especially in developing countries. They generate a lot of money, which is often the main source of foreign exchange. In addition, they provide employment to millions of people not only in agriculture but also in related sectors such as processing and transportation.

 Here are some of the benefits of plants:

  • Create an economic impact -

 crops make a significant contribution to the economy of many countries. They earn money from local and international trade. They are often a source of foreign exchange for many countries, supporting economic growth and stability. 

  • Create employment opportunities

Agriculture is very active and provides employment to millions of people around the world. These jobs go beyond agriculture to include jobs in infrastructure, transportation and other related industries.

 • Access to industrial products -

 plants serve as the main raw material for many companies. For example, rubber is important for the industrial sector, especially in tire production; Cocoa is important for the chocolate industry; and cotton is the main resource in the textile industry.

 • Supporting food security -

 Certain crops, such as bananas and pineapples, contribute to food security by providing essential nutrients to people around the world.

• Social development -

 the income from cultivated crops can lead to improvements in infrastructure, health care, education and other social sectors, promoting social and economic development and increased in many areas.

 • Environmental benefits -

 When used correctly, plants can contribute to carbon sequestration, help maintain soil health and support biodiversity. This sustainable management can contribute to the overall health of the planet. Crops grown on hillsides and slopes also help prevent soil erosion. They also serve as crops, preventing rain from washing away the soil.

 • Cultural significance -

Plantation crops such as tea and coffee have deep cultural significance in many communities. They are often an important part of culture, tradition and social culture.

 • Potential for value-added products -

 Crop production offers opportunities for the development of value-added products. For example, sugarcane can be used to produce sugar, biofuels and molasses, and coconuts can be used to produce copra, coconut oil and coir, thereby increasing the economic value of these crops.

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