HOW TO PLANT , GROW AND HARVEST CARROTS

How to plant , grow and harvest  carrots

 How to plant , grow and harvest  carrots

About carrots

Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, which is usually orange in color, although ancient varieties include purple, black, red, white, and purple, all domestic. a type of wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwest Asia. The plant probably originated in Persia and was originally reported for its leaves and fruit. The most commonly eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the herb and leaves are also eaten. Home carrots are chosen for their expansion, taste better and small taproot plants.

 
Carrot is a biennial plant from the umbelliferae family, Apiaceae. When it is born, it forms a rosette of leaves while it develops a mature taproot. Fast-growing plants grow about three months (90 days) after planting, while slow-growing plants need one month more (120 days). The root is rich in alpha and beta carotene, lycopene, anthocyanins, lutein and is a good source of vitamin A, vitamin K and vitamin B6. Black carrots are one of the richest sources of anthocyanins (250 to 300 mg / 100 g of fresh root) and therefore have a high antioxidant capacity, which is almost 20 to 35 times that of carrots red / orange and five times higher than beetroot.

 
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reports that the global production of carrots and turnips (FAO collects these plants) for 2020 is 41 million tons, of which more than 44% of the world's total is grown in China. . Carrots are often eaten powdered or cooked in various dishes.

when to plant carrots 

  • Carrots can be sown about 2 to 3 weeks before the last spring frost date. Find your local frost date here. Ideally, you want the soil to dry out and warm up a bit after winter.

  • Seeds germinate when the soil temperature is at least 40°C and grow best at 55-65°C, not exceeding 75°F. High temperatures reduce taste, reduce quality and make the taste bitter or off.
  •   For a fall harvest, plant seeds in mid-summer, starting about 10 weeks before your first frost.

How to plant , grow and harvest  carrots

How to plant carrots

  • Prepare the site by grading to a depth of 10 inches. Make sure there are no rocks, stones or even clods of dirt. Change the soil with compost and 6 inches of sand on top of the soil if your soil is not loose in the air.
  • We recommend digging twice to be sure. . We recommend sowing the seeds directly in the garden (or wherever you plan to grow them) rather than transplanting them. Carrots do not like their roots to be disturbed.

 

  • Plow 1/4 inch deep, 2 to 3 inches apart in rows 1 foot apart. 
  •     Tips: Try to spread the seeds evenly so that the seeds do not grow together. The seeds are small and it is very easy to plant them. If you don't have the steadiest of hands, a simple tip is to mix the seeds with fine sand to distribute them. You can sow a pinch of your sand mix instead. Then, just cover the tree. 
  • Keep the soil moist with frequent, shallow watering. For small carrot seeds to grow, the soil should not make the bone hard on the surface; cover it with a layer of good sand, vermiculite or compost to prevent the bones from forming. (If you put your toe in the soil, it will be wet, but not wet, up to the middle of the toe.) 


  •  Carrots sometimes take time to grow. They take 14 to 21 days to emerge, so don't panic if your carrots don't appear right away!

 

  •  Planting radishes and carrots helps reduce the scab problem and helps you know where to plant the carrot seeds. Sow fast-growing radish seeds between the rows of carrots. Radishes willquickly and when the carrots really start to grow, radishes can be harvested. 


  •   For a continuous harvest, plant carrots every four weeks until mid-summer.

 
Carrots in a containers
 
Growing carrots in pots is a great way to organize the growing process and avoid pests like the carrot fly. The door opening should be at least 10 to 12 inches wide and as wide as possible.
 

  •  A good low fertility mix is ​​one part sand and one part potting soil.
  •   Plant the seeds well over the filled pot, then cover them with just a touch of the mixture.
  •  Water, seal and place in a sunny place.
  •  Keep everything moist because unlike those in the ground, these carrots will be completely dependent on you for all their needs.
  •  Plants need to be a few centimeters apart when they appear. Then, harvest as soon as they reach the size of a finger.

Growing


  • Dry the carrot thoroughly to retain moisture, speed up the process and prevent sunlight from damaging the roots.


  •   When the seedlings are 3 inches long with 3 to 4 true leaves, thin them out to 3 to 4 inches. Use scissors to cut the tops instead of removing them so you don't damage the roots of the remaining plants.


  •   Make sure the carrots get 1 inch of water per week, either by rain or by sprinkling; You have moved the carrot. 
  •  Vegetables like carrots do not like to fight for weeks, but be careful not to damage the roots of the growing carrots when you do it. 
  • Fertilize five to six weeks after sowing. (We recommend a low nitrogen fertilizer, because the excess nitrogen in the soil supports the crown, or green, growth, not the roots.)

Recommended varieties

Carrots come in a rainbow of colors, sizes and shapes.
 

  •   "Bolero": short tape; 7 to 8 inches; resistant to many pests and leaf blights. 


  • "Danvers": a classic legacy; 6 to 8 inches long, which falls at the end and has a dark orange color; suitable for weight loss.
  •   "Little Finger": heritage; small Nantes carrots are only four inches long and one inch wide; Good for containers.
  •   "Nantes": cylindrical (not conical); 6 to 7 inches; to enjoy; crispy texture.
  •  "Thumblin": legacy; around the head, good for lumpy or clay soil and containers.
  •   For a unique color, try the heirloom "Red Cored Chantenay" and the bright "Sun Yellow."

How and when to harvest carrots
 

How do you know when your carrots are ready? Have a round root and check the root width of the root by looking at the root collar. First the roots should be ready two months after the war.
 

  • In general, the smaller the carrot, the more delicious it is. Carrots should be about as wide as your thumb or at least ½ inch in diameter.
  •  The young, shallow roots should come out easily, just by holding them firmly under the leaf. It usually helps to pinch the root first, then turn it by gently pulling up.
  • Large, long roots, especially those of carrots grown for winter consumption, may need to be loosened with a fork.
  •   Harvest in stages or when the roots are full. In this way, you will spread your harvest over several weeks.


  •  If you grow carrots in the spring and summer, collect them before the daily temperature is too hot, because the temperature can make the carrot roots healthy.


  •   If you harvest in the fall, carrots taste great after one or more winters. (A frost encourages the plant to start storing energy (sugars) in its roots for use later.) After the first hard winter of fall, cover the top of the carrots with a bed of 18 inches. shredded to save them for later. harvest.
  •  Note: Carrots are biennial. If you do not harvest and leave the carrots in the ground, the tops will flower and produce fruit the following year.

 
Carrots, clean the dirt and remove the surface before storing the carrots! 


How to store fresh carrots?

  • To store freshly picked carrots, trim or cut off all but 1/2 inch of the top, rinse off any dirt under cold water, and air dry. Wrap in an airtight plastic bag and refrigerate. If you put fresh carrots in the refrigerator, they will be soft in a few hours.
  • You can leave ripe carrots in the ground for temporary storage if the ground does not freeze and pests are not a problem.
  • Carrots can also be stored in large moist sand or dry sand in a cool and dry place.

 Vegetable Disease - Carrots

Yellow Asters

Mycoplasma (PLO phytoplasma-like organism) 

What to look for?

A common disease in carrot production, it causes losses of up to 10% or more in unripe crops. The affected carrot has yellow leaves and the taproot of the carrot produces many roots in the fibrous part, which prevents it from rotting. This disease is distributed by green leaves that come into the area every year from the central United States. Aster yellows affects canola, onions, parsnips and fava beans as well as flowers, vegetables and orchards.


Management system:

No management plan. 

 

black root rot
Thielaviopsis basicola (Chalara elegans)
 
What to look for

 
This can be a disease that causes problems with carrots grown in muck or soil rich in organic matter. Washed carrots may develop black spots when stored in polyethylene bags.
 

Management system

Root destruction and excessive storage seem to favor disease development.


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