How to grow and care for wheat

 How to grow and care for wheat

Wheat is a grass, but it is also called cereal grain (the word cereal comes from Ceres, the Roman goddess of grain). Its botanical name, Triticum aestivum (also known as wheat), comes from the Latin root meaning "to grind", referring to the first process of turning the seeds of this plant into usable flour. . There are about twenty different types of wheat from seven different species worldwide for commercial and domestic use; these include einkorn, emmer, durum wheat and spelt. The wheat plant is similar to wheat, but the way it grows into a mature grain is slightly different.

 Wheat is one of the most important food plants known to mankind. Archaeological evidence of the cultivation of einkorn (one of the many species) by humans indicates that it began in Turkey during the Neolithic period; A little later evidence points to the cultivation of wheat in Syria and Iraq. Its introduction as a crop completely changed the way we eat, because the grain can be processed into flour that can be stored for a long time and used to make bread. This made it a portable food, which was related to the development of nomadic tribes and livestock farming, but an important factor in the development of global agriculture.

Common Name          Wheat,bread Wheat

 Botanical Name                        Triticum aestuum 

 Family name                               Poaceae 

Plant type                                   Annual

Mature size                                  2 to 4 ft. tall 

Sun exposure                               Full sun

Soil Type                                    Well-drained, loamy 

Soil pH                                        Neutral 

Bloom time                                  Spring

Flower color                                Yellow

Hardiness Zones                           2-11 (USDA)

 Native area                                     Asian


How to plant wheat
Most of us see wheat in a large field, waving gold in the sun. But growing small amounts of wheat at home is easy and rewarding. Wheat is grown from seed, and if you want to grow seeds, your local farmers markets or nurseries can help you get seeds. 

When to plant
You can plant wheat in spring or fall, also called winter wheat. Farmers usually plant winter wheat because it is one of the few crops that can be grown easily today.

Choosing a planting site

 Plant the plant in a full sun location that receives at least six hours of sunlight per day. The planting area should have well-drained soil and organic matter such as compost, grass clippings or shredded leaves. You can plant about 25 plants per square foot, which can produce 10 to 12 grains of wheat when harvested in 100 square feet (5 x 20 feet).

 Space and Depth
To plant wheat, plant about 25 seeds per square foot in loose soil. You can spread the seeds individually across each 12x12 inch plot: plant 1 inch deep for spring wheat and 2 inches deep for winter wheat. Gently pull the soil to cover the seed to the proper depth. 

Wheat Plant Care


Wheat grows in full sun, and you need at least six hours of direct sunlight each day to produce healthy wheat. One reason winter wheat crops grow slowly is because they have fewer hours of sunlight. 

Well-drained loamy soils are best for wheat; Poor drainage can cause problems due to high humidity. If the soil is too rich or rich in nitrogen (from food or other amendments), wheat growth can stop. For this reason, it is not recommended to use fertilizer after planting. If your soil has a high nitrogen content, companion crops can help harvest your wheat crop; choose plants that consume a lot of nitrogen such as spinach, beets, cauliflower or squash.

Wheat does not require a lot of water and most wheat farmers depend on rain for their water needs. This can be difficult during a drought. Gardeners can choose to water during the dry season as needed; it is best to do this early in the morning or after sunset. Drip irrigation is an effective way to water wheat and keep water levels off the plant, directing water to the roots where it is needed most.

Temperature and humidity
Temperature is a factor to consider when planting wheat, since wheat is planted in spring or fall. Spring wheat can withstand extreme heat, but bearing wheat grows longer in cooler temperatures. Heavy rains or prolonged periods of high humidity can affect wheat growth. If your summer has a long period of wet weather, you can try to plant wheat in a higher place or more wind, which can help the plants to die.


 Wheat does not need fertilizer during its growing season, and it can even inhibit plant growth. But improving the soil before planting, if your soil is thin or lacks nutrients; Added beneficial phosphorus to wheat. To know how much to use, follow the directions on the product label.


 Wheat is a self-pollinating plant. When the wheat leaves the pollen, the wind carries it to the plant florets, making the plant fertile.


A type of wheat
There are several types of wheat that you can grow, and each type has characteristics that make it desirable. Red wheat is among the most commonly grown in the United States.

 Hard Red winter wheat is planted as winted wheat.

 It is the most popular wheat used for "loaf" flour, corn bread, and other products.

 Soft Red Winter wheat 

 this is similar to the hard variety, but it is easy to mill and produces a soft flour that is used to make bread, crackers, and cookies. 

Hard red spring wheat

this is planted in the spring. It has a high gluten content and is preferred for pastries that require a lot of handling such as pizza dough or croissants. 

Hard White wheat

 has a milder flavor than red wheat and is often used to make tortillas and some types of noodles.

Soft white wheat 

is used in a variety of baked goods, including sourdough bread and rolls, and this wheat is used to make commercial flour for bread and cakes. Depending on the cultivar, soft wheat can be grown as wheat or winter.

Durum wheat 

is often called "pasta wheat" and has a firm texture and high protein content. Durum wheat is also the source of semolina flour used to make couscous and other pastas. Bulgur is made from the crunchy seeds of the durum wheat plant. 

Spring wheat vs cold wheat
Wheat is planted in the spring and harvested in the fall. It is a high-protein wheat that is used to make bread, rolls, bagels, and pizza crust. Winter wheat is planted in the fall and goes dormant in the winter. and ready to harvest in summer. The variety most commonly grown in the United States is red wheat, which has a higher protein content and less grain yield.

 Harvesting Wheat

Wheat is ready to harvest when the kernels are broken and hard. You can try them between your teeth. Soft grains need to be cooked more. You can harvest by hand if you have a small harvest. Use a scythe or sickle for larger crops. It is important to thresh your wheat to separate the wheat from the chaff. There are many ways to do this by hand, including a simple and effective method that involves using a fan and two buckets and pouring the grain back and forth. And since this is the most important part of planting wheat, you should investigate the best threshing method.

 How to grow wheat by seed

 Unless you are growing wheat as a hay or ornamental plant, the best way to grow wheat in your garden is to sow it outdoors.


Common pest and plant diseases

Like many other food plants, wheat is susceptible to various pests. Aphids are a common problem. The accumulation of aphids will reduce the growth of wheat and affect the shape of the leaves.Generally, spraying them with water is effective. You can also use neem oil for more severe dandruff.

 Another common insect problem in wheat is the stinkbug. Weed control is a good way to avoid attracting them. You can also use diatomaceous earth food mixed into the soil to help get rid of them. Some insects lay eggs on wheat, such as armyworms. You can use Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) applied according to the product instructions, to get rid of it. 

Various diseases can also cause problems for wheat also. Powdery mildew can appear during high humidity. Proper watering can help prevent this; Watering the bottom of the plant helps reduce unnecessary humidity. Ergot mushrooms can also grow in humid conditions, which can be fatal if eaten. This is recognized by the black or yellow color of the grain when this fungus is present. Wheat mosaic virus causes yellow blotch in autumn. Diseases in your wheat require the removal of affected plants to prevent the disease from spreading and their effective disposal away from the garden (don't put them in your compost pile).

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