Preventive measures for fowlpox and Marek's disease in chickens

Preventive measures for fowlpox and Marek's disease in chickens

Fowl pox is an infectious disease in poultry caused by the avian pox virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes. It usually affects domestic birds such as chickens, turkeys and pigeons. This disease is characterized by sores and scabies like sores on the skin, lips, wattles, and inside the mouth.
There are two types of  fowl pox: the dry type and the diphtheria (wet) type. The dry form appears as sores and sores on the skin, while the wet form causes cheesy patches in the mouth, airways, and eyes, causing difficulty in eating and breathing. That type of wet is more serious and can be fatal. 

What causes fowl Pox
Fowl pox is caused by a variety of pox viruses, each with specific characteristics for different bird species and different stages of infection.

 Disease transmission 

Fowl pox spreads slowly within a flock, with an incubation period of about ten days. It can be transmitted through direct contact between infected and non-infected birds, as well as through machinery. Infections can occur through damaged or damaged skin, with the latter being the most common method. Birds of prey can also spread the virus. Insects such as ticks, ticks, mosquitoes and flies can act as vectors to transmit the disease. Poor hygiene practices can contribute to the spread of this virus.


 Clinical signs
All types of birds are susceptible to fowl pox, but lighter males with large crests are more susceptible. The incubation period generally ranges from 4 to 10 days and the average age is 5 to 10 months. The virus can survive on dry skin for a long time. 

Control and prevention of  fowl pox
There is no specific treatment for fowl pox, so it is emphasized that good management techniques are used to reduce stress in infected flocks. If there is an outbreak of disease, the bird should be killed and disposed of properly. Vaccination is important to control the spread of the disease.
Live fowl pox virus vaccine provides protection for 6 months, while live fowl pox virus vaccine provides long-term protection. Vaccination is done at the age of 3 months using the wing web method. Controlling prey within herds can also help reduce the spread of pox virus.

Mark's disease (Fowl paralysis)
Marek's disease is a viral disease in poultry caused by the chicken herpes virus. It usually affects mature birds from 12 weeks of age, although chickens can also be susceptible. Marek's disease causes a variety of symptoms and can cause significant losses in flox

 Clinical signs

 Marek's disease usually affects chickens between 12 and 24 weeks of age, but cases have been reported in birds as young as 6 weeks and older than 24 weeks. The disease can manifest in different ways, affecting the eyes, nerves, internal organs, bones and blood.
Birds may show signs of depression, paralysis, lack of appetite, anemia (red combs), and dehydration. Mortality rates range from 10 to 30%, while morbidity can reach 80%.

Transmission of Marek's disease

 Marek's disease is primarily caused by exposure to infected dander. Spread occurs through direct or indirect contact. Young chicks are usually capable of horizontal transmission, but their ability to rapidly decline after the first few days of life. Viruses can survive in dust, feces and saliva.

 Diagnosis and treatment

The diagnosis of Marek's disease involves looking at clinical signs, performing a postmortem examination, and performing histopathology to confirm the presence of tumors and paralysis. There is no specific treatment for Marek's disease. Chickens are often vaccinated in poultry farms to prevent tumors from developing, but the vaccine does not prevent viral infections. 


Control and prevention of Marek's disease
Isolation of young chickens from places where they may be infected is an important precaution. Vaccination is the most effective way to control Marek's disease.
Vaccines are usually given on the first day or injected into the embryo three days before hatching. Vaccinating birds is protected for life.
In areas where Marek's disease is prevalent, vaccines containing multiple serotypes are often used. The use of genetically resistant stocks and the integration of all systems to disrupt the disease process can also help control the disease.
In addition, proper cleaning and disinfection procedures must be followed. Note: Marek's disease should not be confused with lymphocytic leukosis, although both are viral diseases. Marek's disease usually affects chickens between 12 and 25 weeks of age, while lymphocytic leukosis usually starts at 16 weeks of age. In lymphocytic leukosis, affected birds gradually lose weight, show weakness and have diarrhea. Viruses can be isolated to support the diagnosis of lymphocytic leukosis.

In conclusion, understanding and managing poultry diseases, such as fowl pox and Marek's disease, is critical to maintaining the health and productivity of your flock. fowl pox, which has skin lesions and diphtheria symptoms, can be controlled by good hygiene practices and vaccination. In contrast, Marek's disease, with its many depressing symptoms, requires strict biosecurity measures, vaccination and the use of genetic disease models.
By implementing preventive measures, such as vaccination, isolation and proper hygiene practices, poultry farmers can reduce the impact of these diseases on their flocks. Regular monitoring, prompt diagnosis and proper procedures are important for intervention in the early stages of the disease.


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